1.3.10 Further reading, resources & references

Topic Progress:

Resources & Further Reading

  • Alcoholics Anonymous @ www.aa.org
  • Gamblers Anonymous @ www.gamblersanonymous.org
  • Overeaters Anonymous @ www.oa.org
  • Narcotics Anonymous @ www.na.org
  • Sex Addicts Anonymous @ www.sexaa.org
  • Dual Recovery Anonymous www.draonline.org
  • SMART Recovery @ www.smartrecovery.org
  • Refuge Recovery @ www.refugerecovery.org
  • NIDA @ www.drugabuse.gov
  • ASAM @ www.asam.org


1. NIDA. 2020, July 13. Drug Misuse and Addiction. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drug-misuse-addiction on 2021, January 23

2. www.asam.org/resources/definition-of-addiction

3. Zickler, Patrick, “Addictive Drugs and Stress Trigger Similar Change in Brain Cells, Animal Study Finds,” NIDA Notes Research Findings, Vol. 18, No. 5 (December 2003).

4. See; Doidge, N. “The Brain that Changes Itself” (2007).

5. Di Chiara and Imperato “Drugs Abused by Humans Preferentially Increase Synaptic Dopamine Concentrations in the Mesolimbic System of Freely Moving Rats”. August 1988Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85(14):5274-8

6. Blum K, et al. ‘Increased prevalence of the Taq I A1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) in obesity with comorbid substance use disorder: a preliminary report.’ Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Aug;6(4):297-305;

7. In 2006 Nora Volkow, the president of NIDA, also found evidence that people who have more dopamine receptors than the average person were less likely to become addicted than other people. See; Volkow ND, Wang G, Begleiter H, et al. High Levels of Dopamine D2 Receptors in Unaffected Members of Alcoholic Families: Possible Protective Factors. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(9):999–1008. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.9.999

8. Crews FT, Nixon K. Mechanisms of neurodegeneration and regeneration in alcoholism. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009 Mar-Apr;44(2):115-27. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agn079. Epub 2008 Oct 21. PMID: 18940959; PMCID: PMC2948812.